Book. , B 7 S
(In English In Hexameter Verse)
I. Perley Smith, Ph. D., D. D,
W. B. CLARKE COMPANY,
library of Congress
Two Copies Received
NOV 16 1908
uopyrittm tntry _
class at **&
Copyright 1908 by
I. P. SMITH.
Press of MORRISON BROS.
The study of some portion of Virgil's poems has long
been considered a requisite for students pursuing an extended
course of education. Martin Luther when a young man at
the University made a thorough study of Cicero, Virgil and
other classic authors in preparation for his life work. It is
not strange that a man of his genius should find delight in
the expressive beauty of Virgil's thoughts and Virgil's style.
Many boys and girls in the early part of their classical course
have been deeply impressed with the vivid representations
and the elegance of these lines; and have had feelings similar
to those of a boy fourteen years of age who was reading the
story of the overthrow of Troy, and who said to his teacher
that if he ever became a rich man, he would like to give the
money to rebuild that ancient city.
I have long thought it would be a good thing to have
Virgil's poems translated into English in hexameter verse for
the benefit of those persons who are not able to read them in
the language in which Virgil wrote them.
And so I have undertaken the task of thus presenting the
Eclogues. The poet Longfellow made in hexameter verse
an excellent translation of the first Eclogue which is pub-
lished in his complete works. But I am not aware that the
other nine have ever before been thus translated.
Hoping that the reader of these pages may find pleasure
in them, I offer them to the public.
I. Perley Smith.
October 16, 1907.
To his wife who has felt deep interest in this
work it is affectionately dedicated by the author.
Tityrus, under the shade of a wide-spreading beech
Thou with slender reed meditatest a song of the
We the bounds of our country and our sweet fields
We flee our country; Tityrus, thou, at ease in the
Teachest the woods to resound the name of the fair 5
Oh ! Meliboeus, a god hath for us this leisure
For indeed he will be a god to me always; his
Shall a tender lamb from our sheepfolds often-times
He my heifers to wander about as thou seest and
To play whatever I wished on a rustic reed hath 10
Not indeed do I thee envy; rather I wonder:
In all the fields there is everywhere around so much
Iyo! I myself although sick my goats forward am
This one, Tityrus, scarce lead, for here now among
the thick hazels,
j^ Having yeaned twins, the hope of the flock, on a
bare cliff, ah! she left them.
I remember that to me, had my mind not been
The oaks touched from Heaven had often predicted
Often the ill-boding crow from the hollow ilex
But who that god, nevertheless, is, Tityrus,
20 I supposed the city which they call Rome,
Foolish that I was, like this one whither we
Often to drive down the tender young of our sheep
So I had known whelps similar to dogs, so kids to
So I was wont to compare great things with things
that are little.
2 5 Truly this place hath as much lifted its head
among other cities
As the cypresses are wont among the pliant
And for seeing Rome what reason hadst thou so
Liberty; which late, yet nevertheless regarded me
After my beard was falling whiter when I was
Nevertheless it regarded me and came after a long 3°
Since Amaryllis hath me and Galatea hath left me,
For, and I will confess it, while Galatea detained
No hope had I of liberty, neither care for my
Although many a victim went forth from my
And rich cheese was pressed down for a city 35
Never did my right hand return home heavy with
I used to wonder why sad thou invokedst the gods,
And for whom on the tree thou didst let the apples
Tityrus from here was absent. For thee the very
Tityrus called, the very fountains, these very 40
What could I do? I was neither escape from
Nor to know elsewhere concerning gods so
Here I saw that young man in worship of whom,
Every year our altars for twice six days are
45 Here he first gave to me a response when I
'Feed your heifers as formerly, boys, and yoke up
Fortunate old man ! Thy lands shall then in thy
And large enough for thee, though the naked rock
and the marshland
With the slimy bulrush should overspread all the
50 No unaccustomed fodder shall tempt the ewes that
Neither evil contagion of a flock neighboring harm
Fortunate old man ! Here in the midst of streams
that are famous,
Also fountains sacred, thou wilt enjoy the cool
On this side as ever a hedge on the neighboring
On whose willow flower are Hyblsean bees feeding, 55
Often shall to sleep, by its soft whispering,
win thee. ,
There a vine-dresser, under a high rock, shall sing
to the breezes,
Neither yet shall thy pets, the hoarse wood
Nor the aerial turtle-dove on the elm, leave off
Sooner shall the fleet-footed deer on the sea find 60
And the naked fishes on the shore abandon the
Sooner, the bounds of both roamed over, shall the
Drink of the Arar, or shall the German drink of the
Than shall his appearance glide away from my
But we will go home, some of us to the thirsty 65
Part will to Scythia come, and to the rapid Cretan
And far away to the Britons from the whole
Ah, shall I ever, long hereafter, the bounds of my
And the roof of my poor cottage with turf covered
7° My realm after several harvests, gaze on with
Shall an impious soldier possess these fallows so
A barbarian these grain fields ? Ah, to what has
Lowered wretched citizens ! For these our fields
we have planted !
Graft now the pear trees, put in order the vines,
75 Go forth, my goats, go forth, my flock that was
No more shall I hereafter, stretched in a green-
See you far away from a bush-covered rocky cliff
No song shall I sing; no more, while, my goats, I
Shall ye browse on the blossoming clover and bitter
Nevertheless thou mightest this night here with me go
On the green leaves: we have mellow apples in our
Chestnuts that are tender, and pressed milk in
And now the tops of the roofs of the distant
farmhouses are smoking,
And the shadows from the lofty mountains fall
Corydon, the Shepherd, loved with ardor the fair
The darling of his master, nor did he have what he
Only among the thick beeches, with their shade-
He incessantly came. There alone, these unpolished
5 He poured forth with vain fondness to the
mountains and woodlands.
Dost thou not care for my songs, O cruel Alexis ?
Dost thou not pity me ? Finally to die thou wilt
Now even the cattle the shade and the cool places
Now the thornbrakes are even the green lizards
10 And for the reapers exhausted by the heat that is
Thestylis pounds herbs sweet scented, the wild
thyme and the garlic.
But while I trace thy footsteps under a sun that is
The trees resound to the hoarse crickets in company
Would it not be better to bear the dreadful wrath of
And even her proud disdain, would it not to suffer 15
Swarthy though he was, although thou wast fair
Trust, O beautiful boy, not too much to thine
White privets fall neglected, dusky jacinths are
I am despised by thee, nor dost thou ask who I am,
How rich in herds, in the snowy white milk, how 20
A thousand of my lambs wander in the Sicilian
New milk is not wanting to me in summer nor
I sing the same songs which Dircaean Amphion
When, his herds on Attic Aracinthus, he called
Nor am I so very hideous : on shore I saw myself 2 5
When the sea lay unruffled by the wind ; I will not
With thee to decide since my image never deceives
Oh that it only might please thee along with me to
The humble country and lowly cottage, and the
deer to prostrate,
30 And to drive a flock of kids to the green marsh-
In the woods along with me thou shalt Pan rival
Pan first taught joining several reed-pipes with wax
Pan to the sheep and the keepers of the sheep gives
Neither let having rubbed thy lip with a reed
35 What did not Amyntas do, that he might know
these same things ?
I have a pipe of seven unequal reeds fitted closely
Together, which as a gift Damoetas once to me
And when dying said, 'This now hath thee for
a second possessor.'
So said Damoetas : of him the foolish Amyntas was
40 Moreover, in a valley not safe were two little
Found by me, whose skins are even now with
white speckled over,
Each daily drains a sheep's two udders ,* these for
thee I am keeping :
Thestylis hath begged for a long time to have them
from me ;
And she will do so^ seeing that to thee my gifts
Hither come, O beautiful boy : lo, the nymphs are 45
To thee lilies in full baskets ; for thee the white
Plucking the pale violets and the heads of the
Joins the daffodil and flower of the sweet-smelling
Then interweaving them with cassia and other
herbs that are fragrant,
With the yellowish marigold, she paints the 50
I myself will gather white quinces with down that
And chestnuts, which used to be loved by my
Waxen plums I will add ; also this fruit shall
And you will I pluck, O laurels, and myrtle thee
Seeing that, being thus arranged, ye will mingle 55
Thou art rustic, Corydon, nor for thy gifts cares
Nor would Iollas yield the palm, if with gifts thou
shouldst hold contest.
Ah, ah, what did I wish for my wretched self ! I on
Have, ruined, let loose the south wind, and wild
boars on my pure fountains.
60 Ah, foolish boy, whom dost thou flee ? The gods
too, inhabit the woodlands,
And Dardanian Paris. Let Pallas herself dwell
in the castles
Which she hath built : let the woodlands please us
before all things.
The grim lioness the wolf pursues ; the wolf the
goat likewise ;
The sportive goat goes in pursuit of the blossoming
6 5 Corydon, thee, O Alexis ; his own pleasure draws
Behold, the bullocks bring back the plows from
the yoke suspended,
And the sun declining doubles the lengthening
Nevertheless love burns me ; for to love, what can
be the limit ?
Corydon, Corydon, ah, what kind of a frenzy hath
seized thee ?
7° Only half pruned is thy vine on the leafy elm tree.
Why dost thou not rather endeavor to weave at
Of what need requires, from the osiers and pliant
Thou wilt find another Alexis if this one disdains
Tell me, Damcetas, whose is that flock, is it that of
No, but Agon's ; lately iEgon delivered it to me.
O sheep, always a hapless flock, while he himself
Neara, and fears lest she should prefer me above
This unfaithful shepherd milks the sheep twice in
an hour ;
And the food from the herd, and the milk from the
lambs is stolen.
Bear in mind that these things should be flung at
men not so freely.
We know both who corrupted thee, and in what
While askance looked the goats — but the good-
natured nymphs smiled.
Then, I imagine, when they say/ me hack with 10
Pruning-knif e the grove of Mycon and the vines
that were tender.
Or when thou didst break the bow and the arrows
Here nearby the old beech trees : which when,
Thou to the boy sawest presented, thou wast both
And thou wouldst have died, if to him thou hadst z $
not in some way done mischief.
What can the masters do, when the thieves are so
Did I not see thee catch the goat of Damon, most
With thy crafty tricks, while with fury Lycisca
was barking ?
And when I cried out : 'Whither now away doth he
Tityrus gather the flock;' thou behind the sedges 20
Ought he not to render to me, when vanquished in
The goat which my pipe had deservedly won by its
If thou dost not know it, that goat was my own ;
and to me Damon
Even confessed it, but said that he could not
25 Didst thou surpass him in singing, or was there in
Ever a pipe joined with wax ? Wast thou not wont,
With squeaking pipe to murder a wretched tune at
the three ways ?
Art thou willing then that we should by turns try
with one another
What we each can do ? I wager this heifer — lest
thou shouldst reject her
30 By chance, she comes twice daily to the milk pail,
and with her udder
Feeds two calves — say, with what stake thou wilt
with me make a contest.
Anything from the herd I would not dare wager
For I have a father at home, I have a jealous step-
They both number the sheep, and one of them the
kids twice daily.
But what thou thyself wilt safely confess is far 35
Since it is pleasing to thee to play the fool, I will
My beechen goblets, the divine Alcimedon's carved
Round which a twining vine superadded by the
Clothes the clusters scattered about with the
pale ivy :
In the midst two figures, Conon — and who was the 40
Who with his wand distributed the whole world to
What seasons the reaper, what the bent ploughman
ought to attend to ?
Nor yet have I moved my lips to them, but keep
them laid up.
For me too the same Alcimedon two goblets hath
And he hath twined the handles around with the 45
He hath also placed Orpheus in the midst, and the
Nor yet have I moved my lips to them, but keep
them laid up :
If thou regardest the heifer, there is naught to
praise in the goblets.
Not at all shalt thou escape today ; I will come to
what thou callest.
50 Only let him hear these things — even who comes,
lo, Palaemon !
I will cause that henceforth thou shalt challenge
no one with thy singing.
Come then if thou hast aught, in me there shall be
Nor do I shun anyone : only, neighbor Palaemon,
Give these things closest attention, it is not a small
55 Sing, inasmuch as ourselves on the soft grass we
have seated :
And now every field, now every tree is full
Now the forests are green, now the year abounds
most in beauty.
Begin Damcetas ; Menalcas, thereupon do thou
Sing in alternate verses ; Muses love alternate
Let us begin from Jove, ye Muses ; all things are 60
filled with Jove fully.
He fosters the earth, to him my songs are an object
Phoebus, too, loves me for Phcebus are with me
Suitable gifts, the laurels and the sweet blushing
Galatea, frolicsome girl, aims at me with an apple,
And flies to the willows, and to be seen first 65
But my flame, Amyntas, himself to me willingly
So that Delia is not to our dogs now known better.
Presents have been obtained for my love; for I
The place myself, where the airy wood-pigeons
What I could, I sent to the boy, ten golden apples 70
Gathered from a forest tree ; tomorrow I will send
Oh, how often and what things hath Galatea said
Back to the ears of the gods, some part ye winds,
What avails it that thou thyself dost not spurn me,
75 If while thou chasest wild boars, for the nets I am
Unto me send Phillis : it is my birthday, Iollas ;
Come thyself, when for the fruits, I offer a heifer.
I love Phillis before others ; for she wept when I
And said, 'Farewell, a long farewell, thou
80 To the folds the wolf is harmful, to ripe fruit the
To the trees the winds, and to me the anger of
To the growing crops moisture is sweet, to weaned
kids the arbutus,
The soft willow to the teeming herd, to me only
Pollio is fond of my Muse, although she is rustic,
Ye Pierian sisters, feed for your reader a heifer. 85
Pollio even himself makes new songs : feed ye the
Which now attacks with his horn, and the sand
with his feet scatters.
Let him come, who loves thee, Pollio, where he
rejoices that thou hast :
For him let honey flow, and let the rough bramble
bring forth amomum.
Let him, who hates not Bavius, thy songs, Maevius, 90
And let the same yoke up foxes, and let him milk
O boys, who gather flowers and the strawberries
On the ground, flee hence, a cold snake, in the
grass lies hidden.
Forbear, ye sheep, from proceeding too far ; it is
not safe trusting
95 To the bank ; even the ram himself his fleece is
Tityrus, drive thy grazing goats away from the
When it is time, I myself will wash them all in the
Drive together the sheep, boys ; if the heat should
the milk dry up,
As of late, in vain shall we with our palms press
ioo How lean, alas, alas, in the fattening vetch is my
The same love is destruction to herd and to the
Surely love is not the cause with these ; scarce to
their bones are they clinging.
I do not know what eye bewitches my lambs that
Say, in what lands— and thou wilt be my great
The space of the sky not more than three ells lies 105
Say, in what lands, with the names of kings grow
Inscribed, and thou only shalt have possession of
It is not mine to settle so great contests between
Both thou and he the heifer deserve, and whoever
Fear sweet love, or whoever shall experience bitter. II0
Close up your streams now, boys; the meadows
have drunk a plenty.
Let us sing of things a little greater, Sicilian
The trees and the humble tamarisks do not delight
If we sing of woodlands, let them be worthy
The last age of Cumaean prophecy has come
5 Over again the great series of the ages commences :
Now too returns the Virgin, return the Saturnian
Now at length a new progeny is sent down from
Only, chaste Lucina, to the boy at his birth be
In whose time first the age of iron shall discontinue,
io And in the whole world a golden age rise; now
rules thy Apollo.
Just while thou too, Pollio, just while thou art a
Shall this glorious age come, and great months
commence to roll onward.
Under thy guidance, if any traces of our guilt
Rendered harmless, they shall set the earth free
from fear forever.
He shall partake of the life of the gods, and he I5
Heroes mingled with gods, and he too shall be seen
And he shall rule a peaceful world with his father's
But the earth, O boy, shall pour forth her little
gifts to thee,
Even where without culture the creeping ivies with
And colocasia are mingled with the smiling 20
The goats of themselves shall homeward bring back
With the milk distended, nor shall they fear the
great lions ;
Even the cradle shall pour forth to thee charming
And the serpent shall die, and the false herb
Shall die ; the Assyrian amomum shall spring up 25
Everywhere. But as soon as thou shalt now be able
To read the praises of heroes and the deeds of thy
And to know what virtue is ; the field shall slowly
With the soft grain, and the blushing grape from
the wild bramble
30 Shall hang, and the hard oaks shall distil dewy
Yet a few lurking traces of ancient vice shall
Which shall bid men with ships tempt the sea, and
Cities with walls, and which shall bid them cleave
in the earth furrows :
There will then be another Tiphys, and another
35 Which will bear chosen heroes ; there will be other
And again also to Troy will be sent great Achilles.
Afterwards when at length mature age a man shall
have made thee,
Even the merchant himself shall retire from the
sea, nor shall naval
Pine make exchange of prices : every land shall
bear all things :
4° The ground shall not suffer the harrows, nor the
vine the knife for pruning ;
The sturdy ploughman shall also now loosen the
yokes from the bullocks ;
Nor shall the wool learn to counterfeit various
But the ram himself in the meadows shall change
his fleece over,
Now with sweetly blushing purple, now with saffron
Scarlet shall of itself clothe the lambs while they 45
Hasten on such ages, the Destinies sang to their
Being in the unchanging decree of the fates
Oh approach, great honors, the time will soon
Thou dear offspring of the gods, great progeny of
Behold the world with its convex ponderosity 50
And the earth, and the regions of the sea, and the
depths of heaven !
Behold how all things rejoice at the coming of this
Oh that the last part of my life may so long
And so much of my breath, as to sing thy deeds
shall be sufficient !
Neither shall Thracian Orpheus, nor Linus, surpass 55
me in singing,
Though his mother give aid to the one, and his
father the other,
Calliopea to Orpheus, handsome Apollo to Linus.
If even Pan should contend with me, Arcadia
Pan even would say that he was vanquished'
60 Begin, little boy, with a smile to distinguish
thy mother :
To thy mother ten months brought the qualms long
Begin, little boy, on whom have not smiled his
Nor a god with his table, nor goddess with her bed,
Now that, Mopsus, we have met here together,
Thou in swelling slender reeds, I in singing verses,
Why have we not sat down here among the elms
mingled with hazels ?
Thou art the elder ; it is just that I should obey
Whether under the quivering shadows, stirred by 5
Or if we repair to this grotto: behold how the wild
Of the woodlands has here and there scattered the
grotto with clusters.
Only Amyntas in our mountains should with thee
hold a contest.
What if the same should strive to surpass Apollo
in singing ?
Begin, Mopsus, first, whether thou hast either some 10
loves of Phillis,
Or some praises of Alcon, or some quarrels of
Begin; Tityrus will care for the kids that are
Nay, I will try rather these songs which I carved
In the green bark of a beech tree, and setting to
music, I noted
15 Down alternately ; bid then to the contest
As far as yields the pliant willow to the pale olive,
As far as the humble lavender to the crimson rose
So far according to my judgment to thee yields
But forbear to say more, boy ; we have come to the
20 The Nymphs, when Daphnis was cut off by a death
that was cruel,
For him lamented ; ye hazels and streams to the
Nymphs bear witness ;
When the mother, the hapless body of her son
Calls out to the gods, and also to the stars, 'Ye are
Not any persons, during those days, drove their
To the cooling streams, Daphnis ; neither of river 25
Quadruped taste ; nor did it touch a single blade of
The wild mountains, Daphnis, and the forests
Carthaginian lions even have mourned over thy
Daphnis also introduced yoking Armenian tigers
To a chariot ; Daphnis, too, the leading of festive 30
Of Bacchus, and the pliant spears with soft leaves
As the vine is the glory of the trees, as the grapes
of the vine,
As the bulls of the herds, as the crops of the rich
So thou art of thy friends all the glory ! After the
Thee off, Pales herself and Apollo the fields 35
Worthless darnel and sterile wild oats spring up in
To which we have often the large grains of barley
Instead of the soft violet, instead of the purple
The thistle springs up and the thorn-bush with the
40 Strew the ground with leaves, draw the shadows
over the fountains,
Shepherds. Daphnis orders such things to be done
for him ;
And make a tomb, and to the tomb superadd
an inscription :
*I am Daphnis in the woodlands, known hence even
to the stars.
Guard of a beautiful flock, myself more beautiful
45 Such is thy song to me, as sleep on the grass,
Is to those that are weary, as during the heat of
To allay thirst from a purling stream of fresh
Nor with reeds only, but with thy voice, dost thou
equal thy master.
Fortunate boy, thou shalt from this time be to him
50 Nevertheless I will sing by turn such things as
these to thee,
With what skill I may, and I will bear up to the
stars thy Daphnis.
I will raise Daphnis up to the stars : Daphnis too
Can anything be more welcome to me than such a
And the boy too is worthy of being in song made
Stimachon also long ago these songs of thine 55
praised to me.
On the strange threshold of Olympus, clothed
in white, Daphnis
Gazes with wonder ; under his feet he sees the
clouds and the stars.
Therefore eager delight holds possession of the
woods and other
Parts of the country, of Pan too, and the shepherds,
and Dryad maidens.
Neither doth the wolf meditate any plots against 60
Nor nets furnish a snare for the deer ; good
Daphnis loves rest,
The unshorn mountains themselves with joy lift up
To the stars ; the very rocks now lift their songs
'A god, Menalcas, he is a god,' murmur forth the
Oh, be propitious and kind to thine own ! Lo, four 55
Behold two for thee, Daphnis, two high altars for
Year by year two goblets that are with new milk
Also two bowls of rich olive oil will I to thee offer.
And especially with much wine our festivities
70 Before the fireside, if winter, in the shade if it is
From the cups Ariusian wine, a newly found nectar,
I will pour out. To me Damoetas and Lyctian iEgon
Shall sing ; Alphesiboeus shall imitate the dancing
These rites always shall be thine, both when we
75 Vows to the nymphs, and of the fields we make the
While the wild boar shall be fond of the tops of
While the fish of rivers, and while bees shall feed
on the thyme, while crickets
On dew, always shall thine honor, and name, and
praises continue ;
As to Bacchus and to Ceres, so to thee yearly,
80 Shall the farmers make vows : thou also with vows
shalt bind them.
What gifts, what gifts, for such a song, shall I to
thee render ?
For neither doth the murmuring of the south wind
So much delight me, nor so much the shores lashed
by the billows,
Nor the rivers that run down through the rocky
In the first place, with this fragile pipe I will 85
present thee :
This taught me 'Corydon loved with ardor the
This same, 'Whose herd is this, is it that of
Melibceus ? '
But, Menalcas, do thou take this crook, beautiful
Uniform knobs and brass, which Antigonus — and
he was worthy
To be loved— did not carry off, though of me often 90
he begged it.
My Thalia was the first that deigned in Syracusan
Verse to sport, nor did she blush to inhabit the
Cynthius, pulled my ear when I would sing of kings
and of battles,
And gave the admonition : * It devolves on a
5 Tityrus, to feed thrifty sheep, and sing a fine spun
Nor will I, O Varus — for there will be enough who
Wish thy praises to sing and commemorate wars
that were dreadful —
Meditate a rural song with a slender reed pipe.
I sing things not unbidden : yet if, too, any one taken
10 By love, if any one shall read these things, our
The whole grove, shall sing of thee ; nor to Phoebus
Page more dear than that on whose front is written
the name of Varus.
Go on, ye Muses ! The boys Chromis and also
Saw Silenus as he was lying asleep in a grotto,
15 His veins being with yesterday's wine, as always,
At a distance were lying his garlands only just
And his heavy jug by its well worn handle was
Laying hold of him — for the old man had often
Both with the hope of a song — with his very gar-
lands they bind him.
^Egle adds herself as companion, and comes on 20
them timid —
iEgle, fairest of the Naiads — and just as his eyes
Opening, with blood red mulberries she paints his
forehead and temples.
Smiling at the ruse, he says, "Why do you bind me
Loose me, boys ; it is enough to seem to have
been able :
Listen to the songs, which you desire ; the songs 25
for you ;
For her there will be another reward''. At once he
Then truly you might have seen the fauns and the
wild beasts dancing
To the measure, then the rigid oaks waving their
Nor doth the Parnasian rock have so much pleasure
Nor doth Rhodope so much, nor Ismarus, wonder 30
For he sang how the seeds of the worlds through
space without limit,
And also of the air, and of the sea, had been
And at the same time of pure fire ; how from these
All the elements and the world's tender orb became
35 Then how the ground began to harden and to shut
Off in the sea,and slowly take on the forms of objects;
And now how at the light of the new sun, the
worlds were astonished,
And how from the clouds suspended high, down
came the showers ;
When the woods first began to rise, and when the
40 Here and there, began to wander about in strange
He next tells of the stones that Pyrrha threw, the
And also the Caucasian birds, and the theft of
To these he adds the fountain where the sailors
shouted for Hylas
Left behind, how with Hylas, Hylas, the whole
45 And in her mad love of a snow-white bullock he
To Pasiphae, fortunate if herds had never existed.
Ah, unhappy young woman, what infatuation pos-
sessed thee !
The daughters of Prceteus filled the fields with low-
ings unreal :
But yet nevertheless not any one of them pursued
Vile embraces of beasts, however much she feared 50
the plough from
Her neck, and had often felt for horns on her
Ah, unhappy young woman, thou art now roaming
the mountains :
He, supporting his snow-white side upon the soft
Under a gloomy ilex ruminates colorless herbage,
Or in a nnmerous herd he follows some female. 55
Close, ye Nymphs,
Ye Dictaean Nymphs, close now the open parts of
If by any chance my bullock's wandering foot-
May present themselves before my eyes ; mayhap
May entice him off away to the Gortynian stables,
Either by green pasture induced or following the
Then of the girl who was charmed with the apples g
of Hesperus' daughters
He sings ; then with the moss of bitter bark, he
The sisters of Phaethon, and from the ground raises
Then he sings how one of the sisters led Gallus,
65 By the streams of Permessus, to the Aonian moun-
And how all the choir of Phoebus rose up to do him
And how Iyinus, the shepherd of divine song, and
Having his locks adorned with flowers and bitter
Said : ''The Muses give these reeds to thee, pray
70 Which they gave to the Ascraean old man, with
which he was
Formerly wont to bend down the rigid ash trees in
To thee on these let the origin of the Grynaean forest
Be sung, that there may be no grove in which more
Apollo may glory."
Why should I speak either of Scylla the daughter
75 Whom fame reports, girt about her white groin with
To have vexed the Dulichian ships, and in the
Ah, with marine sea-dogs, to have torn the timid
sailors in pieces ;
Or how he told the transformation of Tereus' body ;
What banquets, what presents, Philomela for him
made ready ;
With what speed he sought the deserts, and, too, 80
with what wings,
111 fated, over the palace, at one time his own, he
All these he sings, which the happy Eurotas
heard, and then
Bade its laurels learn by heart while Phoebus was
To the stars they are carried by the echoing valleys ;
Till Vesper warned them to gather the sheep in 85
And count the number, and came forth from reluc-
Daphnis by chance had sat down under a whisper-
Corydon, too, and Thirsis had driven their flocks
Thirsis the sheep, Corydon the goats with milk
Both in the flower of their age, both Arcadians also,
5 Equally matched in singing, and also ready to
To me, while from the cold I was the tender myrtles
Hither the he-goat himself, the leader of the flock
had wandered ;
And I espy Daphnis. When he sees me in turn,
* 'Hither come quickly/ '
He says, "O Meliboeus, the he-goat is safe and the
io And if thou canst awhile linger, rest thee under the
Hither to drink the bullocks themselves shall come
through the meadow,
Here the Mincius has fringed the green banks with
Reed, and the young swarms of bees resound from
the sacred oak tree".
What could I do ? I had neither Alcippe, nor Phillis,
To shut up the lambs at home, that from the milk *5
had been taken,
And there was a great contest, Corydon vying with
I, however,put off for their play my serious business:
Therefore both began to contend in alternate verses;
The Muses wished that they should remember al-
Corydon these, those Thirsis, in due order recited. 20
Ye Libethrian Nymphs, my delight, grant to me
Such a song as ye gave to my Codrus ; poems
makes he next
To the verses of Phoebus ; or if we all cannot do this ,
Here on this sacred pine shall hang my whispering
Ye Arcadian shepherds, deck your rising poet 25
That the sides of Codrus may burst asunder with
Or if he shall praise me beyond what is pleasing,
bind then his forehead
With baccar, lest an evil tongue should harm the
Delia, little Micon this head of a bristly wild boar,
30 And the branching horns of a long lived deer to
If this shall be lasting, thou shalt stand at thy full
In polished marble having thy legs bound with
It is enough for thee to expect a bowl of milk, O
And these cakes yearly. Thou art the keeper of a
35 Now according to the times, we have made thee of
But if the increase of the flock permit, be thou
Galatea, daughter of Nereus, sweeter to me than
The thyme of Hybla, whiter than swans, more fair
than white ivy ;
As soon as the well fed bullocks shall return to
40 Come, if for thy Corydon, any care shall possess
May I seem to thee more bitter than Sardinian
Rougher than the butcher's broom, more worthless
If this day is not now longer to me than a whole
Go home if ye have any shame, go home, my well
Ye mossy fountains, and grass that is softer than 45
And the arbute tree which covers you with its green
Guard the herd from the mid-summer heat ; now
Summer is coming, now the buds on the clinging
vine-branch are swelling.
Here is a hearth and resinous torches, here is at all
Very much fire, and door posts blackened with 50
smoke long continued :
Here we care as much for the cold of the north
wind as the wolf doth
For the number, or the torrent for the banks of the
Here stand both the junipers and also the prickly
All around under every tree its own apples lie
All things are now smiling : but if handsome Alexis 55
Should go from these mountains, you would see
even the rivers dry up.
The field is parched ; dying by fault of the air, the
herbage is thirsty ;
X,iber has denied our hills the shade of the vine-
Every grove will be green at the approach of our
5 And with joyous showers, Jove will come down in
The poplar is to Alcides, the vine to Bacchus, most
Myrtles to beautiful Venus, his own laurel to
Phillis loves the hazels : so long as she shall love
Neither myrtle nor laurel of Phoebus shall conquer
6$ The ash is fairest in the woods, the pine in the
The poplar by the rivers, the fir in the lofty
But if, my charming Lycidas, thou dost visit me
The ash in the forests shall yield to thee, the pine
in the gardens.
These verses, I recall ; and that in vain with Cory-
70 Conquered, contended. From that time, Corydon,
Cory don is mine.
The Muse of the shepherds Damon and Alphe-
Whom contending, the heifer of her grazing un-
Gazed at with wonder, at whose song were the
And the rivers changed in their courses were quiet-
ly resting —
I will sing the Muse of Damon and Alphesiboeus. 5
Whether for me over the rocks of great Timavus
Now, or art coasting along the shore of the Illyrian
Will that day ever come, when to sing thy deeds, I
shall be permitted ?
Ah, will it be that I shall be permitted to carry
Through the whole world thy songs alone worthy of 10
From thee is the beginning ; I will with thee
The songs begun by thy commands accept, and
surfer this ivy
To creep among the victorious laurels over thy
y Scarcely had the cold shade of night withdrawn
from the heaven,
15 What time the dew on the tender grass is most
grateful to cattle,
When thus began Damon, leaning on a tapering
Lucifer, rise and going before bring on the kindly-
While I complain, deceived by love of my be-
Of which she was unworthy; and the gods, al-
though I gained nothing
20 From them as witnesses, in my last hour I pray to
Begin with me, my pipe, the Maenalian verses.
Msenalus both a rustling forest and whispering pine
Always possesses ; he always listens to loves of
And to Pan who first never suffered the reeds to be
25 Begin with me, my pipe, the Maenalian verses.
Nisa to Mopsus is given : what shall we lovers not
look for ?
Now shall griffins with horses be joined, and the
Timid deer shall come with dogs to the watering
Mopsus, cut thy new torches : a wife to thee is
Scatter, bridegroom, the nuts : Hesperus, for thee, 30
Begin with me, my pipe, the Maenalian verses.
thou to a worthy man joined while thou despisest
And while my pipe is odious to thee, and while too
And my bushy eyebrows and my flowing beard also,
Nor believest that any god cares for things done by 35
Begin with me, my pipe, the Maenalian verses.
When thou wast a little girl, I saw thee with thy
Dewey apples in our gardens — I was thy leader.
The next year above eleven had then received me ;
1 was not able from the ground to reach the delicate 40
How I gazed, how I languished, how a fatal mad-
ness possessed me !
Being with me, my pipe, the Maenalian verses.
Now I know what love is : on the rugged cliffs,
Ismarus, or else Rhodope, or the remote Garamantes,
A boy neither of our race nor of our blood, pro- 45
Being with me, my pipe, the Maenalian verses.
With the blood of her sons, relentless love taught a
To pollute her hands ; thou mother also wast cruel.
Was that mother more cruel or that boy more base-
50 That boy was base-hearted ; thou mother also was
Begin with me, my pipe, the Maenalian verses.
Now let the wolf flee willingly from the sheep ; let
the hard oak trees
Bear golden apples ; let the alder bloom with the
From their barks let the tamarisks be distilling rich
55 And let owls vie with swans ; let Tityrus be
changed to Orpheus,
Tityrus in the forests, Arion among the dolphins.
Begin with me, my pipe, the Maenalian verses.
Lest all things become the very midst of the sea :
farewell ye forests !
Headlong will I from the summit of the aerial
60 Into the waves cast myself ; from me dying, take
this last present.
Leave off, my pipe, leave off now the Maenalian
These things said Damon; tell me what, ye
Alphesiboeus responded : not all of us can do all
Bring forth water, and bind these altars with a
And burn unctuous vervain, also large grains of 65
That I may try to turn away the sound mind of my
By rites magic and sacred : nothing but charms
here is wanting.
Bring home from the city, my charms, bring ye
Charms have power to bring down the moon even
from heaven ;
Circe by her charms transformed Ulysses' com- 70
The cold snake in the meadows is burst open by
Bring home from the city, my charms, bring ye
First these threefold threads diversified with
I bind around about thee, and three times round
Thine image I carry : the god delights in a num- 75
Bring home from the city, my charms, bring ye
Triple colors bind in three knots, O Amaryllis,
Bind them now, Amaryllis, and say, 'I bind the
chains of Venus \
Bring home from the city, my charms, bring ye
80 As this clay is hardened, and as this wax is
By one and the same fire, so by my love may
Daphnis be softened.
Scatter the salt cake ; and burn with bitumen the
Cruel Daphnis burns me, I burn on Daphnis this
Bring home from the city, my charms, bring ye
85 May such love take possession of Daphnis as
when a heifer,
Weary with searching for the bullock through all
And lofty thickets, desperate, falls down by a
stream of water,
On a green sedge, nor late at night thinks of re-
May such love take hold of him, nor may I care for
90 Bring home from the city, my charms, bring ye
That perfidious one left formerly to me these
The dear pledges of himself, which now at the very
O earth, to thee I commit ; these pledges owe to
Bring home from the city, my charms, bring ye
These herbs, and these poisonous plants, also, 95
gathered in Pontus,
Mceris himself gave to me ; they grow very plenty
By these I have often seen Mceris become a wolf
Himself in the woods often call forth ghosts from
the depths of their graves,
And transfer to another ground also the growing
Bring home from the city, my charms, bring ye 1oo
Bring ashes forth, Amaryllis, and into a flowing
Over thy head cast them, nor look back : with these
I will assail ; for the gods and for songs he cares
Bring home from the city, my charms, bring ye
See, the very ashes with trembling flames have 105
seized the altars
Of themselves, while I delay to remove them : be
it a good omen !
I know not what surely it is, and at the gate Hylas is
Shall I believe it, or to themselves are dreams
formed by lovers ?
Cease now, my charms, cease ye, from the city
Where dost thou go, Moeris ? is it the way that
leads to the city ?
We have, O Lycidas, lived to see the day when a
(Which we never feared) as possessor of my little
Should say : 'these things are mine ; go away
former tillers ! '
5 Overcome now and sorrowful, seeing that chance
controls all things,
These kids — nor may he get good from it — I to him
Certainly indeed I had heard where the hills begin
To slope, and by an easy declension to lower their
Even to the water and to the old now broken topped
*° Your Menalcas by his verses hath preserved all
True thou hadst heard, and it was the report ; but
Lycidas, have among the weapons of v/ar as much
As they say, do Chaonian doves when the eagle is
In fact, unless the ill-boding crow had before-
Me from the hollow ilex some way to cut short new 15
Neither thy Moeris here would be alive nor even
Ah, does so great crime occur to any one person ?
Ah, were thy charms nearly snatched from us the
same time, Menalcas,
With thyself ? Who would sing of the Nymphs ?
Who would scatter
The ground with flowering herbage, or with green 20
shade cover the fountains ?
Or who would have sung the songs which I in si-
lence took from thee lately
When thou was wont to resort to our dear Amaryllis?
'Tityrus, — short is the way — feed my goats while I
am returning ;
And when they are fed, to watering, Tityrus, drive
And while driving, beware of the he-goat, he butts 25
with his horn/
Nay these rather which to Varus he sang nor yet
'Only just let Mantua still be spared to us, Varus —
Mantua too near, alas, to unhappy Cremona —
And thy name shall the singing swans to the stars
30 So may thy swarms of bees flee from the Cyrnean
yew trees ;
So may thy cows fed with clover make larger their
Begin if thou hast aught ; the Muses too made me
I too have my verses in possession ; the shepherds
Also call me an inspired bard ; but I do not give
35 For neither as yet do I seem to sing things worthy
Nor Cinna, but among the rustling swans like a
goose to gabble.
That indeed I do, andLycidas, I am thinking it over,
To see if I can remember it, nor is it a worthless
'Hither come, O Galatea ; for what sport is there
in the billows ?
40 Here is blooming Spring ; the earth here near by
Pours forth various flowers ; here the white poplar
The grotto, and vines that are flexible weave shady
Hither come ; let the raging billows beat upon the
But what were the songs, which in a clear night I
heard thee alone singing ?
I remember the measure, if I could call to mind the 45
'Daphnis, why dost thou gaze at the rise of the old
IyO, the star of Dionaean Csesar hath onward
The star under which the fields with corn would be
And under which the grape on sunny hills would
take on color.
Graft the pear trees, Daphnis : thy descendants 50
shall pluck the fruitage.'
Age bears away all things, even the soul; Ire-
When a boy often to have spent the long days of
Summer in singing :
Now these many songs have I forgotten ; also the
Now itself fled from Moeris ; the wolves first have
But yet often enough to thee will Menalcas repeat 55
Making excuses, thou puttest off for a long time my
And now all the water lies to thee smooth and
See how hath died away all the breath of the mur-
From here half our journey remains to us ; for now
60 Bianor's tomb to make its appearance : here where
The dense foliage prune away, here let us sing,
Here lay down thy kids : however yet we shall
come to the city.
Or, if we are fearful that the night may gather rain
ere we reach it,
We may go on all the time singing, (the way will
make us less weary) ;
65 That we may go on singing, I will ease thee of this
Urge me no more, boy, and let us now do what is
before us :
We shall sing better songs, when he himself shall
have come here.
Grant unto me, O Arethusa, this final endeavor :
A few verses must be sung to my Gallus, but such as
Lycoris herself would read : who would deny verses
to Gallus ?
So when thou glidest under the Sicanian waters,
Let not bitter Doris her wave with thine intermingle. 5
Begin ; let us sing the solicitous longings of Gallus,
While the flat-nosed goats the tender thickets are
We cannot sing to the deaf ; the woodlands echo
back all things.
What forests or what mountain passes, ye Naiad
Hindered you when Gallus was pining with love 10
For neither any tops of Parnassus, nor those of
Nor Aonian Aganippe, caused you detention.
Even the laurels, even the tamarisks also be-
Even now the pine bearing Maenalus wept for him
Under a lonely rock, and the cold stones of Lycaeus. jg
His very sheep stand around him ; neither do they
Nor do thou have disdain for thy flock, O divine
poet : —
Kven the handsome Adonis pastured sheep by the
Also the shepherd came, and there came the slow-
moving swineherds ;
20 And wet through with gathering the winter mast
All question 'whence is this love of thine ? '
Here came Apollo.
'Gallus, why ravest thou?' he says ; 'Lycoris, who
is thy darling,
Both through the snows and through the rough
camps hath followed another.'
Also Sylvanus too came with his head's rural honor,
25 Shaking the flowering fennels, and besides the
Pan came, the god of Arcadia, whom we ourselves
Stained with the purple berries of elder and also
' What limit will there be,' he says ; 'love does not
care for such things.
Cruel love is not satisfied with tears, nor grassy
30 With streams of water, nor bees with clover, nor
with leaves the goats.'
But he sorrowful said : 'Yet ye shall be, Arca-
These things in your mountains : the Arcadians only
Are skilled in singing. Then may my bones, O
how softly, be resting,
If thy pipe in future times shall sing of my longings !
And besides would that I had been one of you, and 35
Keeper of your flock, or vintager of the grape
Certainly, whether Phillis had been my love or
Or whoever it might have been — what if Amyntas
were swarthy ?
Both the violets are dark and the hyacinths are dark —
He would have lain with me under the pliant vine 40
among the willows :
Phillis would gather garlands for me, Amyntas be
'Here there are cool fountains, Lycoris, here are
Here is a forest ; here with thee my very life I
could be spending.
Now my crazy love of cruel war in arms detains me
In the very midst of weapons, and foes opposing. 4 c
Thou far off from thy native land, (nor let me be-
lieve it) !
Ah, Alpine snows only, thou seest, and the Rhine's
Alone without me : ah, may not the cold to thee be
Ah, may not the sharp ice cut the soles of thy feet
that are tender !
'I will go and on a Sicilian shepherd's reed warble 50
The songs, which in Chalcidian verse, by me have
It is certain that in the woods I had rather suffer,
Among the dens of wild beasts, and my loves on
Trees cut ; as those will grow, so my loves, ye
shall be growing.
55 'In the meanwhile, in company with the Nymphs,
will I rove over
Maenalus, or hunt fierce wild boars: not any cold
shall forbid me
From encompassing with dogs the Parthenian
Now to myself I seem, over the rocks and through
Groves to go ; it pleases me to shoot Cydonian
60 From a Parthian bow :— as if this were a cure for
Or as if that god could learn by the evils of men to
be softened !
'Neither now again do the Nymphs of the forest
Even please me any more ; farewell again even ye
Not any sufferings of ours have the power to change
65 Neither if in the midst of winter we should both
drink of the Hebrus,
And if we should the Sithonian snows of watery
Undergo, nor if, when withers the bark on the lofty
The sheep of the Ethiopians under the sign of
We should tend ; love conquers all things ; and to
love let us surrender.'
To have sung these strains will be enough, di- 70
For your poet ; while he sits and weaves a little
Of slender marsh mallow : these ye will make most
precious to Gallus —
To Gallus for whom my love as milch hourly in-
As in the spring early, the green alder shoots up-
Let us rise, the evening shade is wont to be harm- 75
ful to singers ;
The shade of the juniper does 'harm ; to grain shade
Go home, my goats, well-fed, go home, forth comes
the star of the evening.
LIFE OF VIRGIL.
Virgil, whose whole name in the Latin language
was Publius Virgilius Maro, was born in the town of
Andes near Mantua in the year 70, B. C, on the
19th of October. His father early perceived his su-
perior natural ability and took immediate steps to
have him educated, providing for him the best in-
tellectual training the world then afforded. At the
age of twelve years he was sent to Cremona to receive
instruction, and his father probably accompanied
him there. He was very fortunate in having a father,
who, though in humble life himself, discerned the
intellectual qualities in the mind of his son and used
every means to develop them to the fullest extent.
At the age of 16 he assumed the toga virilis, and soon
after went to Milan where he continued his studies
for two years and then went to Rome.
At the time of his arrival, the poems of Lucretius
and Catullus were being brought before the public,
and they were the first poems in the Latin language
that were truly artistic. The influence of this on the
susceptible mind of a youth like Virgil could not fail
to awaken enthusiasm and to excite aspirations for
high attainments and high enjoyment of the beau-
tiful and the useful in the realm of thought expressed
in the language of Rome which had then reached its
highest point of culture. We may infer what were
his impressions at this time by a few lines in the first
Eclogue where he ma,kes Tityrus say:
"I suppose the city which they called Rome, Melibceus,
Foolish that I was, like this one whither we sheperds
Often to drive down the tender young- of our sheep are
So I had known whelps similar to dogs, so kids to their
So I was wont to compare great things with things that are
Truly this place hath as much lifted its head among other
As the cypresses are wont among the pliant viburnums."
He studied for some time after this under the in-
struction of a rhetorician, and then gave his attention
to philosophy under Siron, an Epicurean, who seemed
to have the faculty of inspiring his pupils with deep
interest in their studies and who also gained their strong
affection. Virgil here became deeply interested in phil-
osophical speculations and throughout his life con-
tinued the consideration of such subjects.
A few years after this, when he was 28 years of age,
he began to compose the Eclogues, a task which it took
him four years to complete. In these he pictures vivid-
ly the beauties of rural scenery, the charms of home
life in the country and the ties of affection that so
sweeten and ennoble human existence. This period
was probably spent at the home of his father near the
banks of the Mincius in northern Italy, where nature
has poured forth her gifts in prolific abundance, where
the air is clear and life-giving, where bright skies invite
the stars to look down on us and where fields, wood-
lands and flowing streams call people to tranquility,
peace and joy.
Virgil's next work was the Georgics, a poem de-
voted to the various branches of agricultural pursuits
and embracing four books. On this he spent seven
years, producing the most perfect of all his poems as
a work of art, and the most entirely in harmony with
life in Italy.
He had very much at heart the composition of an
Epic poem which should bring forcibly before the
minds of the people the origin of their country and the
characteristics of their race, both with reference to the
past and to what might be in the future. This he ac-
complished in writing the Aeneid, which required
eleven years. In it he gives us history, human life,
philosophy and religion.
His characters are noble and refined. They manifest
in what they say to each other, and in what they do, an
honorable, dignified, benevolent spirit. All this is so
beautifully and attractively presented that even young
students are deeply impressed in reading it and are
thereby led to cherish high ideals in life.
When he was 51 years of age, he went to Athens
with a view of giving more time to study amidst he
classic scenes of Greece, but soon after his arrival there,
he met Augustus, who was on his return from his vic-
tories in the East, and through his influence Virgil was
induced to return to Italy. During the voyage he
became seriously ill, and died, after lingering a few
days, in the 52d year of his age, at Brundisium, Sep-
tember 22, B. C. 19.
Virgil was tall and swarthy. He never enjoyed
very firm health. He was refined in his nature, and
also most loveable in character and personality.
His Eclogues at once gave him the first place among
Roman poets. He has always been considered the
greatest poet in the Latin language; and today he is
regarded as one of the most illustrious poets of the
world, in some respects greater even than Homer.
He left his works to the world, in the language of a
distinguished poet who was well qualified to judge of
their merit, in "The noblest metre ever moulded by
the lips of man." This is the metre of Homer, and it
is used by Longfellow in his Evangeline and in some
of his other poems.
In this poem Virgil expresses his gratitude to the emperor
Augustus for restoring to him his lands which had been taken
from him to give the soldiers for services rendered in the bat-
tle of Philippi, in which the exaltation of Augustus to the
throne was made possible. By Tityrus is represented Virgil,
and by Meliboeus the less fortunate residents of the vicinity,
who were deprived of their estates permanently. The lands
of Mantua, Virgil's home, and Cremona near by were thus
taken from their owners and given to the soldiers. Virgil on
account of his literary attainments was accordingly favored.
t Y 1 • Tityrus : this is a general name taken from Theocritus and
signifies a goat. This, like most of the other proper names
here used, is from the Greek.
5. Amaryllis, a favorite Greek name signifying "bright-eyes".
6. Meliboeus, a Greek name meaning cowherd.
27. Rome, situated on the river Tiber, founded by Romulus,
B. C. 753.
31. Galatea is thought to stand allegorically for Mantua,
near which Virgil was born; and Amaryllis for Rome.
63. Parthian, an adjective from Parthia, a country in Asia.
The Arar, a river in Gaul.
64. Tigris, a river in Asia.
66. Scythia, a country in the northern part of Asia. Oaxee, a
river in Crete.
83. The smoking is from the fires kindled to prepare supper.
The subject of this poem is the fondness of the shepherd
Corydon for the beautiful boy Alexis whom Virgil had seen at
the house of Pollio and whose beauty he celebrates in this de-
lightful song. So pleased was Pollio with this poem that he
gave the boy, who was a slave, to Virgil ; and being educated
with much care, the slave became a distinguished grammarian,
under his real name of Alexander. This is not certain, though
1. The shepherd Cory don who is fond of the boy Alexis.
10. Thestylis, the name of a servant.
14. Amaryllis and Menalcas, former objects of Corydon's
21. Sicilian. Many wealthy Romans had estates in Sicily,
and there were excellent pastures there. $j
24. Amphion was the mythic founder of Thebes whose
walls rose at the music of his lyre. Aracinthus is the mountain
ridge that devides Boeotia from Attica. Actaean, an adjective
from Attica. Dircaean from Dirce, a fountain near Thebes.
26. Daphnis. A beautiful shepherd, the mythic paragon
of pastoral poetry.
31. Pan, the god of shepherds and hunters. He is said
to have invented the pipe with seven reeds.
46. Nais, a nymph of the water.
57. Iollas, the master of Alexis.
61. Paris, the son of Priam, king of ./Troy. Pallas, the
goddess of wisdom and skill.
In this poem we have a trial of skill between two poets,
Menalcas and Damcetas. After a short discussion with each
other in which the criticism is quite sharp, they agree to hold
a contest in alternate couplets. These are entirely discon-
nected, and some of them are merely sarcastic jokes which they
make upon each other, the poet, under the character of
Damcetas, thus exprjising ridicule for some who had at-
tempted to rival him. Though in imitation of Theocritus,
the poem is purely Roman in thought and expression.
2. Aegon, the name of a shepherd.
4. Neara, a rustic maid.
17. Damon, a goatherd.
18. Lycisca, a mongrel dog, half dog and half wolf.
27. Alcimedon, a sculptor.
40. Conon, an astronomer of Alexandria.
50. Palaemon, a shepherd.
62. Phoebus, another name of Apollo.
67. Delia, perhaps Diana, who is sometimes called Delia
from .Delos the place of her birth, or perhaps a servant of
84. Pollio, a noble Roman, a friend of Virgil.
r 90. Bavius,and Maevius, obscure and envius poets of the
time of Virgil.
I 105. By some this space is supposed to be at the bottom
of a well.
£ 106. The flower here referred to is supposed to be the hya-
cinth, which has veins in it similar to the letters, AI, and
which are the Greek for alas! and which might also be an
abreviation of Ajax.
We have in this Eclogue a prophecy of a better time about
to come, a golden age, when peace would prevail and when
righteousness would be exalted among men. The hope of
this existed in Italy, and other nations were expecting better
days in the immediate future. The poem is dedicated to
Pollio, Virgil's patron, and is supposed to refer to his son
born about this time. But the latter died when nine days
old. Others think it refers to a son of Octavia, the sister of
Augustus, who was born at nearly the same time; but this
boy lived to be only twenty years of age. Still others think
it is a prophecy of the coming of the Savior whose birth is
predicted in Scripture.
1. Sicilian Muses, muses of pastoral song; called thus
because Theocritus,the father of pastoral poetry,was a Sicilian.
4. Cumaean, from the island of Cumae, where the earliest
Sibyl had her residence.
5. The four ages of gold, silver, brass and iron. The
iron age is supposed to be coming to a close, and the golden
age to be about to begin anew.
6. The Virgin, the goddess Astraea, who presided over
justice, said to be the last of the deities that left the earth
on account of the numerous crimes committed here; now
about to return in a better age. The Saturnian age is associated
with Saturnus, the Italian god of husbandry.
8. Lucina, here applied to Diana, as giving light. It
was supposed that the god Apollo would reign during this age.
34. Tiphys, the pilot of the Argo, the ship in which
Jason sailed to Colchis for the golden fleece.
55. Orpheus and Linus, were mythic bards of the heroic
age. Orpheus was said to be the son of the muse Calliopea,
and Linus the son of Apollo.
59. Pan, whose country was Arcadia, was fond of music.
He was the god of shepherds. Even Pan's home would
acknowledge that he was vanquished in this contest.
This pastoral was written to commemorate the death of
some person of distinction who is here called Daphnis. There
have been various opinions in regard to the person referred to.
Many have supposed that the poet had in view Julius Cassar
who met death at the hands of Brutus, in the senate house,
and was afterwards enrolled among the Roman deities. In
the early part of the poem, the shepherd Mopsus laments the
death of Daphnis; in the latter part of it, Menalcas, rep-
resenting Virgil, describes the welcome of Daphnis among the
gods and the rites observed in honor of him as a divinity.
20. Daphnis, the ideal shepherd, represented by Theocri-
tus as drowned and his death bewailed by the nymphs.
35. Pales, a goddess of the flock. Apollo was keeper of
the flocks of Admetus, and was a patron of shepherds.
59. Dryads, nymphs of the grove.
79. Bacchus, the god of wine. Ceres, the goddess of
Varus with Cornelius Gallus had been appointed to carry
into effect the distribution of the lands in the north of Italy.
By request of Varus that Virgil would write an epic poem,
Virgil sent him these verses. He would gladly, he says,
have sung the heroic deeds of Varus ; but Apollo checked the
flight of his muse : and he brings before us Silenus, a fabulous
deity who sings the beginning of things, in accordance with
the Epicurean philosophy, which was a popular theory at
that time, and which Varus as well as the poets enjoyed.
1. Thalia, one af the Muses, supposed to preside over
comedy and pastoral poetry. Syracusan, from Syracuse, the
birthplace of Theocritus, the first eminent pastoral poet.
3. Cynthius, a name of Apollo, from a mountain in Delos.
11. Phoebus, a name of Apollo.
13. Chromis and Mnasyllus, two young satyrs.
14. Silenus, an attendant of Bacchus.
20. Aegle, a name of a nymph.
21. Naiads, water nymphs.
27. Fauns, gods of the woods.
29. Parnassian, from Parnassus, a mountain in Phocis a
district m Greece, sacred to the Muses and made famous by
the poets. Here was a temple of Apollo.
30. Rhodope and Ismarus, two ranges of mountains in
Thrace, the home of Orpheus, a mythical poet.
41. The stones thrown behind them by Deucalion and
Pyrrha after the flood, from which sprang a new race of men.
Saturnian kingdoms, the golden age.
42. The poets say Prometheus stole fire from heaven.
44. Hylas, a youth who went with Hercules on the
expedition of the Argonauts, and was carried away by the
nymphs, who admired his beauty.
45. Pasiphae, daughter of "Helios, the Greek sun-god,
and wife of Minos ; she had a mad passion for a bull.
48. The daughters of Proeteus, who were rendered mad by
Juno because they despised her worship, and who imagined
they were changed into heifers.
56. Dictsean, from Dicte, a mountain in Crete.
60. Gortynian, from Gortyna, a city of Crete famous for
61. The daughters of Hesperus are said to have had
gardens in which were trees that bore golden apples.
62. The sisters of Phaethon who were said to have been
transformed into poplar trees.
64. Gallus, a distinguished Roman poet of the time of
65. Permessus, a river of Boeotia rising at the foot of Mount
Helicon. Aonian mountains, Mount Helicon and MountCy th-
era in Boeotia.
67. Linus, a mythical poet, son of Apollo and Terpsichore,
an excellent musician and teacher of Orpheus and Hercules.
70. The Ascrasan old man, JHesiod, born in Ascra near
Mt. Helicon, father of the songs of husbandry, and poet of
the old cosmogony.
72. Grynaean, from Grynaeum, a city of Aeolis, where
Appollo had a temple.
74. Scylla, daughter of Nisus. The lower part of her
body was transformed into hideous monsters : she was finally
changed into the rock which bears her name between Italy
and Sicily, opposite Charybdis.
77. Dulichan, from Dulichium, an island in the Ionian
sea, near Ithaca, the home of Ulysses.
78. Tereus, a king of Thrace.
79. Philomela was a sister of Procne. The latter was
the wife of Tereus. When the sisters took revenge upon him
for the wrong that he had done, he pursued them with a weapon ;
and when he had overtaken them, the sisters prayed to the
fods that they might be changed into birds. Philomel
ecame a nightingale, Procne a swallow, Tereus a hoopoo, and
Itys, the son of Tereus and Procne, became a pheasant.
This is strictly a bucholic poem. It contains a poetical
contest between the shepherds Corydon and Thirsis with
Daphnis for umpire. Some are of the opinion that by Cory-
don and Thirsis we are to suppose the poet represents Gallus
and Pollio. Melibceus is thought to be Virgil and Daphnis
a mutual friend of theirs. They carefully listen to the songs
and give the palm to Corydon. The scene is laid on the banks
of the river Mincius in northern Italy.
2, Corydon, is from a Greek word signifying a lark. Thyr-
sis is also from a Greek word signifying a spear bound with a
vine in honor of Bacchus.
8. Daphnis is from a Greek word signifying a laurel.
12. Mincius, a small river.
14. Alcippe and Phyllis, the names of two servants.
21. Libethrian, from Libethra, a fountain in Bceotia.
22. Codrus, a shepherd poet.
29. Delia, a name of Diana from Delos, the place of her
birth. Mi con, a hunter.
33. Priapus, was a god of gardens, half god and half
37. Nereus, the god of the sea, Neptune; Galatea, his
daughter ; Hy bla, a mountain in Sicily famous for its honey.
41. Sardinian, from the island of Sardinia where an herb
grew having prickly leaves and a very bitter taste, which is
said to produce a convulsive laughter with grinning. Hence
the expression a "Sardonic grin" denoting a forced laughter.
57. Liber, a name of Bacchus.
61. Alcldes, another name for Hercules from Alcaeus his
This poem begins by introducing to us two shepherds,
Damon and Alphesiboeus, whose songs filled animals with
admiration and astonishment, and caused the rivers to
change their courses and stand still. It is in two parts. In
the first, Damon is the speaker; in the second, Alphesiboeus.
Damon complains of the loss of his love, Nisa, who has mar-
ried another. In the second part Alphesiboeus tells of the
charms of Amaryllis, an enchantress, whom a maiden made
use of to bring back her loved one, Daphnis, who had neglected
and gone from her. It is inscribed in most expressive language
to an unnamed person, whom some suppose to be Pollio,
others Julius Caesar, though Pollio is undoubtedly the one
referred to. The poem is exceedingly beautiful.
6. Timavu8. This was a stream flowing into the Adria-
tic, or what is now the Gulf of Venice, near Trieste.
7. Ulyrian, from Illyricum, a country bordering on the
10. Sopho clean, from Sophocles, an Athenian who was a
famous author of tragic poetry. The buskin was used by
17. Lucifer, the morning star, identical with Venus.
18. Nisa, a rustic maiden.
21. Maenalian, Arcadian.
22. Maenalus, a mountain in Arcadia.
24. Pan, the god of shepherds and flocks.
27. Griffins. These were fabulous animals having the
body of a lion and the wings and back of an eagle.
30. Hesperus, the evening star. Oeta, a mountain of great
height in Thessaly.
44, Ismarus and Rhodope are very wild and rocky moun-
tains in Thrace. The Garamantes are inhabitants of tha
center of Africa. All these are used as symbols of barbarism.
55. Orpheus, a mythical poet before the time of Homer.
56. Arion, a famous lyric poet of Lesbos, cast into the sea
by sailors, and rescued by a dolphin. Dolphins were supposed
to be fond of music.
70. Circe, a sorceress, daughter of Helios, the sun. Ulys-
ses ,the hero of Homer's "Odyssey".
95. Pontus, a country in Asia Minor bordering on the Eux-
ine sea. It abounded in poisonous herbs.
96. Moeris, a magician.
101. Ashes are supposed to have been used as a symbol of
what it was desired to banish from memory. They were
thrown over the head backward into running water so as to
be seen no more; or perhaps with the thought that the gods
who were believed not to wish to be seen by men, except upon
unusual occasions, would come up behind and receive them,
and thus it was hoped that Daphnis would be entirely driven
from remembrance if he did not return.
107. Hylas, the name of a dog from a Greek word signify-
ing to bark.
In these lines we have a dialogue between Moeris, Virgil's
steward, and Lycidas, a neighboring shepherd. They meet on
the way. The lands in the vicinity of Mantua had been given
by Augustus to the soldiers who had served him ; and Virgil
had been cruelly treated by the rough soldier to whom his
estate had been assigned, and only escaped with his life by
swimming the river Mincius. Menalcas in this poem represents
Virgil. Lycidas, in beautiful poetic description, tells Moeris
of his own misfortune in losing his property, and Moeris, in
lines as charming, relates the good fortune of his master in
having his lands restored to him through the kindness of the
Emperor. Some translations of poetical quotations, prob-
ably from Theocritus, are interspersed, and the whole of this
discussion is poetical and beautiful as only a poet like the
author could make it.
13. C ha oman, from Chaonia, a part of Epirus in which
was the city of Dodona ; here was a shrine of Jupiter. Some
prophetic doves were said to reside in oak trees there.
28. Cremona, a city on the banks of the river Po, near
Mantua. Its people had suffered in the same way as Mantua
in having their lands taken from them and given to the soldiers.
30. Cyrnean, from Cyrnus, an island in the Mediterranean
sea the modern name of which is Corsica. The yew trees,
in which this island abounded, caused the honey to have a
35. Varus, a tragic and Epic poet.
36. Cinna, a tragic poet.
39. Galatea, a nymph.
47. Dionaean, from Dione, a nymph of the sea, who was
the mother of Venus; from the latter's grandson, lulus, the
Julian family claimed to be descended.
54. The Wolves first. There was an old superstition that
if a person met a wolf and did not catch his eye first, it would
strike him dumb.
60. Bianor, the mythical founder of Mantua, fabled to
have been the son of the river-god Tiber and Manto, daughter
of the seer Teiresias, and to have named the city Mantua for
67. He himself refers to Menalcas who represents Virgil
in this poem.
This poem gives an account of the disturbed condition
of Gallus who was an able writer of poetry and a friend of
Virgil, and also a distinguished general. When he was sent
away on a military expedition, Lycoris, upon whom he had
bestowed his affections, was attracted to a rough soldier and
went with him to Gaul. Gallus therefore requested a poem
from Virgil which might have the effect of bringing her back
to him, and we have these lines which are in imitation of the
first Idyl of Theocritus.
1. Arethusa, a nymph of great beauty, the daughter of
Nereus and Doris. She was the goddess of the fountain bear-
ing her name which rises in the Island of Ortygia near Syra-
cuse. It has its source in the Peloponnesus, and it is said,
after flowing under the sea, to have burst forth as a fountain
in the little island of Ortygia, in the bay of Syracuse, on which
was situated a part of the city. Alpheus, a river-god, was in
love with the nymph Arethusa who, flying from him, was
changed into a fountain.
5. Doris, a nymph of the sea, here put for the sea.
11. Parnassus and Pindus, mountains in Thessaly.
12. Aganippe, a fountain in Mount Helicon.
14, 15. Manama and Lycseus, mountains of Arcadia.
24. Sylvanus, a god of the woods.
51. Chalcidian, from Chalcis, a city of Eubcea, the birth-
place of Euphorion an elegiac poet.
57. Parthenian, from Parthenius, a mountain of Arcadia
where virgins used to hunt, which derives its name from
Parthenos, a Greek word signifying a virgin.
59. Cydonian, irom Cydonia, a city of Crete, famous for
60. The Parthians were remarkable for their skill in hand-
ling the dow.
62. Hamadryads, nymphs of the forest.
65. Hebrus, the largest river in Thrace.
66. Sithonian, from Sithonia, a part of Thrace where the
winters were severe.
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